Pediatric Conditions

Selected peer reviewed published research on Pediatric Conditions:

There are several pediatric disorders that may cause vision loss or blindness in children due to retinal, visual pathway, or cortical pathology. The objective data obtained by electroretinograms, electrooculargrams, and visual evoked potentials are an integral part to the diagnosis and monitoring of infants and children either with or suspected of having visual impairment.



Apkarian P. Electrodiagnosis in paediatric opthalmogenetics. International Journal of Psychophysiology 1994; 16:229-243.

Brodie SE. Tips and tricks for successful electrophysiology in children. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2014; 25:366–373.

Fulton AB, Hansen RM, Westall CA. Development of ERG responses: the ISCEV rod, maximal and cone responses in normal subjects. Doc Ophthalmol 2003; 107: 235–241, 2003.

Robson AG, Nilsson J, Li S, et al. ISCEV Guide to Visual Electrodiagnostic Procedures. Springer 2018;136:1-26.


Liasis A, Handley SE, Nischal KK. Occipital petalia and albinism: a study of interhemispheric VEP asymmetries in albinism with no nystagmus. J. Clin Med 2019 (8) 802:1-13

Chiasmal Dysfunction

Mellow TB, Liasis A, Lyons R. When do asymmetrical full-field pattern reversal visual evoked potentials indicate visual pathway dysfunction in children? Doc Ophthalmol (2011) 122:9–18.

Cerebral Visual Impairment

Handley SE, Thompson DA, Prise KL, Liasis A. ERGs on the brain: the benefits of simultaneous flash retinal and cortical responses in paediatric cerebral visual impairment. Doc Ophthalmol 2018; 136:223-227.


Westall CA, Logan WJ, Smith K, Buncic JR, Panton CM, Abdolell M. The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, longitudinal ERG study of children on vigabatrin. Doc Ophthalmol 2002 March; 104(2):133–149.

Inherited Retinal Diseases

Ambrosio L, Hansen RM, Kimia R, Fulton AB. Retinal function in X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 209; 60:4872-4881.

Suppiej A, Marino S, Reffo ME, et al. Early onset retinal dystrophies: clinical clues to diagnosis for pediatricians. Italian Journal of Pediatrics (2019) 45:168.


Brodie SE, Paulus YM, Patel M, Gobin YP, et al. ERG monitoring of retinal function during systemic chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2012;96:877-880.

Hsieh T. Liao A, Francis JH, Lavery JA, et al. Comparison of efficacy and toxicity of intravitreal melphalan formulations for retinoblastoma. 2020:

Retinopathy of Prematurity

Fulton AB, Hartmann EE, Hansen RM. Electrophysiology testing techniques for children. Doc Ophthalmol 1989; 71:341-354.

Hansen RM, Moskowitz A, Akula JD, Fulton AB. The neural retinal in retinopathy of prematurity. Prog Retin Eye Res 2017 January; 56:32-57.

Moskowitz A, Hansen RM, Fulton AB. Retinal, visual, and refractive development in retinopathy of prematurity. Eye and Brain 2016; 8:103-111.

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